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Greek adjectives Advanced Level

Adjectives

Greek adjectives are inflected words which either modify nouns (τα κόκκινα τριαντάφυλλα) or attribute a property to them (τα τριαντάφυλλα είναι ακριβά). Adjectives must agree with the respective nouns in gender, number, and case.

Most Greek adjectives follow a three-fold gender distinction (masculine – feminine – neuter).

Sing.O ψηλός   η ψηλή   το ψηλό

Plural.Οι ψηλοί  οι ψηλές    τα ψηλά

However, it can be seen that there are two other, less numerous, categories of adjectives in Greek, namely:

Adjectives following a two-fold gender distinction like ο, η διεθνής – το διεθνές.

Adjectives, which are words of foreign origin, with no distinction of gender, case or number whatsoever like μπλε.

Adjectives showing the three-gender distinction belong to the following groups:

                  -ος/ -η-/ o–                                          – oς/-α-/ο-

Masc.        o καλός      οι καλοί                             ο νέος        οι νέοι        

Femin.       η καλή        οι καλές                           η νέα          οι νέες

Neuter       το καλό       τα καλά                            το νέο         τα νέα

  -ύς-/ -ιά/-ύ-                                                       -ης-/-α-/ -ικο

 Masc.      o βαθύς     οι βαθιοί                   ο ζηλιάρης     οι ζηλιάρηδες

Femin.      η βαθιά     οι βαθιές                    η ζηλιάρα       οι ζηλιάρες

Neuter      το βαθύ     τα βαθιά                    το ζηλιάρικο    τα ζηλιάρικα

In here belong adjectives ending in: -άρης, -ούλης, or compounds ending in -μάλλης, -πόδης, -μάτης,   -μύτης, -χέρης and so on, or one of the following list: τεμπέλης, τσιγκούνης, κουτσομπόλης, κατσούφης

                      

    –ής/ιά/ί

Masc. ο πορτοκαλής

Fem.   η πορτοκαλιά

Neuter το πορτοκαλί

Like βαθύς: In here belong adjectives: a small number denoting dimensions or other “sense-perceived” quality: πλατύς, μακρύς, ελαφρύς

Adjective stem ends in consonant→ Feminine in /i/

πρώτ-(ος) → πρώτ -η    first

καλ-(ός) → καλ -ή

εκείν-(ος) → εκείν -η

λυμέν-(ος) → λυμέν -η    sad

Adjective stem ends in vowel/ → Feminine in /a/

πλούσι-(ος) → πλούσι-α    rich

γελοί-(ος) → γελοί -α         ridiculous

νέ-(ος) → νέ-α                    young

αρχαί-(ος) → αρχαί-α         ancient

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