All about Greek nouns
Nouns (are the words for living beings, things, places and concepts)
Every single Greek noun belongs to one of the three groups called genders: masculine(m), feminine(f) or neuter(n). The nouns for male and female people are usually masculine or feminine: ο πατέρας (father), η μητέρα (mother), o αδερφός (brother), η αδερφή (sister) (o, η, το represent the word the to match the gender of the noun.
This is not always the case, however: το παιδί (child), το αγόρι (boy) and το κορίτσι (girl) are all neuter.
There’s no way of telling the gender of other nouns from their meaning, e.g. coffee is masculine (o καφές), beer is feminine (η μπύρα) and wine is neuter (το κρασί). Because of this, the best thing to do is to learn the gender of new words as you meet them by learning the noun together with o (m), η(f) or το (n).
Nouns of the same gender follow patterns, that is, they have similar endings and ways of forming the plural.
Here are the most common singular & plural patterns in each of the three genders:
Masculine singular Masculine plural
Ending in -oς –ος changes to – οι
O δρόμος road/ street οι δρόμοι roads/streets
Ending in –ας/-ης –ας/-ης change to –ες
O Έλληνας Greek man/person οι Έλληνες Greek people
Ο πελάτης costumer οι πελάτες customers
Ending in –ές ές changes to –έδες
Ο καφές coffee οι καφέδες coffees
Feminine singular Feminine plural
Ending in –α/-η –α/-η change to –ες
Η σαλάτα salad οι σαλάτες salads
Η φίλη female friend οι φίλες female friends
Neuter singular Neuter plural
Ending in -o – o changes to –α
Το δωμάτιο room τα δωμάτια rooms
Ending in – ι –ι changes to –ια
Το κρασί wine τα κρασιά wines
Neuter is by far the largest group of nouns
All masculine nouns and names end in -s in the dictionary, but you’re more likely to come across them without the final -s. It’s omitted when addressing a man or boy by name: saying hello to Nikos is Γεια σου Νίκο! It is also omitted from the object of the verb: Θέλω ένα καφέ. Ι want a coffee; Έχετε μουσακά; Have you got moussakas?
You can also read:contracted verbs: πάω, λέω, ακούω, τρώω
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